The National Feral Pig Action Plan


A library of useful references has been put together regarding feral pigs in Australia. This library will be updated with any relevant papers.

Please note: This is not an exhaustive list of feral pig publications; they have been separated into different categories, but some papers may fall into multiple categories (but have only been placed in one). All effort has been made to link the references to the online source.

Categories with newly added publications will be highlighted by “*New” as well as the publication itself.

Bain, K. and Kinnear. K (2015) Feral pig control strategy for south west Western Australia: 2015-2020. Plan prepared for South West Catchment Council, Western Australia.

Choquenot, D., McIlroy, J. and Korn. T (1996) Managing vertebrate pests: Feral pigs. Bureau of Resource Sciences, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra. ISBN 0 644 35847 5

Finch, N., Murray, P., Hoy, J. and Baxter. G (2014) Expenditure and motivation of Australian recreational hunters. Wildlife Research. 41:76-83.

Gentle, M., Wilson, C. and Cuskelly, J. (2022). Feral pig management in Australia: implications for disease control. Australian Veterinary Journal, 100 (10): 492-496.

Hone, J. (1987) Theoretical and practical aspects of feral pig control. Doctoral dissertation. Australian National University, Canberra.

Hone, J. (2002) Feral pigs in Namadgi National Park, Australia: dynamics, impacts and management. Biological Conservation 105:231-242.

Hvala, A., Rogers, R. M., Alazab, M., & Campbell, H. A. (2023) Supplementing aerial drone surveys with biotelemetry data validates wildlife detection probabilities. Frontiers in Conservation Science, 4 *New

Koichi, K. and Halliday, D. (2015) Glovebox Guide for Managing Feral Pigs. PestSmart Toolkit publication. Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre, Canberra, ACT

McIlroy, J. C. 1993. Feral pig management problems in the wet tropics of Queensland World Heritage Area. Final Consultancy report on control of feral pigs (Sus scrofa) associated with the wet tropics of Queensland World Heritage Area. WTMA, Cairns.

Meurk, C. (2014) The econo-techno-social design of invasive animal management: costs and benefits or beneficiaries and benefactors? Australian Geographer 45:37-52.

Mitchell, J. (2002) Ecology and management of feral pigs (Sus scrofa) in rainforests. Doctoral dissertation. James Cook University, Cairns.

Pavlov, P. 1992. Investigation of feral pig populations and control measures: Cape Tribulation section of the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. Department of Environment and Heritage Queensland National and Wildlife

Robinson, C. J., Smyth, D. and Whitehead, P. J. (2005) Bush tucker, bush pets, and bush threats: cooperative management of feral animals in Australia’s Kakadu National Park. Conservation Biology 19:1385-1391.

Wilson, C., Gentle, M., & Marshall, D. (2023). Feral pig (Sus scrofa) activity and landscape feature revisitation across four sites in eastern AustraliaAustralian Mammalogy,45(3); 305-316. *New

Adams, P. J., Fontaine, J. B., Huston, R. M. and Fleming, P. A. (2019) Quantifying efficacy of feral pig (Sus scrofa) population management. Wildlife Research 46: 587-598.

Alexiou, P. (1983) Effect of feral pigs (Sus scrofa) on subalpine vegetation at Smokers Gap, ACT. Proceedings of the Ecological Society of Australia 12:135-142.

Bowman, D., and McDonough, L. (1991) Feral pig (Sus scrofa) rooting in a monsoon forest-wetland transition, northern Australia. Wildlife Research 18:761-765.

 Castle, G., Kennedy, M. S., & Allen, B. L. (2023). Stuck in the mud: Persistent failure of ‘the science’ to provide reliable information on the ecological roles of Australian dingoes. Biological Conservation, 285, 110234. *New

Fensham, R., Fairfax, R. and Cannell, R. (1994) The invasion of Lantana camara L. in forty mile scrub National Park, north Queensland. Australian Journal of Ecology 19:297-305.

Fordham, D., Georges, A., Corey, B. and Brook. B. W. (2006) Feral pig predation threatens the indigenous harvest and local persistence of snake-necked turtles in northern Australia. Biological Conservation 133:379-388. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2006.07.001

Gentle, M., Speed, J. and Marshall. D. (2015) Consumption of crops by feral pigs (Sus scrofa) in a fragmented agricultural landscape. Australian Mammalogy 37: 194-200.

Gillman, G., Sinclair, D., Knowlton, R. and Keys, M. (1985) The effect of some soil chemical properties of the selective logging of a north Queensland rainforest. Forest Ecology and Management 12:195-214.

Gilmour, D., and Gilmour, D. (1971) The effects of logging on streamflow and sedimentation in a north Queensland rainforest catchment. The Commonwealth Forestry Review. 50(1(143)):39-48.

Hancock, G.R. & Lowry, J.B.C. (2023) Do feral pigs increase soil erosion? A monsoonal northern Australia case study. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 1–14 *New

Hone, J. (1988) Feral pig rooting in a mountain forest and woodland: distribution, abundance and relationships with environmental variables. Australian Journal of Ecology. 13:393-400.

Hone, J. (1995) Spatial and temporal aspects of vertebrate pest damage with emphasis on feral pigs. Journal of Applied Ecology. 32(2):311-319.   

Koichi, K., Sangha, K. K., Cottrell, A. and Gordon, I. J. (2012) Aboriginal rangers’ perspectives on feral pigs: are they a pest or a resource? A case study in the wet tropics World Heritage Area of northern Queensland. Journal of Australian Indigenous Issues 15:2-19.

Krull, C. R., and Egeter, B. (2016) Feral pig (Sus scrofa) predation of a green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea). New Zealand Journal of Ecology 40:191-195.

Li, A. Y., Williams, N., Fenwick, S. G., Hardy, G. E. S. J. and Adams, P. J. (2014) Potential for dissemination of Phytophthora cinnamomi by feral pigs via ingestion of infected plant material. Biological Invasions 16:765-774.

Lynes, B., and Campbell, S. (2000) Germination and viability of mesquite (Prosopis pallida) seed following ingestion and excretion by feral pigs (Sus scrofa). Tropical Grasslands 34:125-128.

Marshall, J. C., Blessing, J. J., Clifford, S. E., Negus, P. M. and Steward, A. L. (2019) Epigeic invertebrates of pig-damaged, exposed wetland sediments are rooted: An ecological response to feral pigs (Sus scrofa). Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 30:2207-2220.

Miller, B., and Mullette, K. J. (1985) Rehabilitation of an endangered Australian bird: The Lord Howe Island woodhen Tricholimnas sylvestris (Sclater). Biological Conservation 34:55-95.

Mitchell, J. (1993) Systematic assessment of feral pig damage and recommended pig control methods in the wet tropics World Heritage Area. CSIRO Department of Lands Tropical Weeds Research Centre, Final report to the Wet Tropics Management Authority. WTMA, Cairns.

Mitchell, J., Dorney, W., Mayer, R. and McIlroy, J. (2008) Spatial and temporal patterns of feral pig diggings in rainforests of north Queensland. Wildlife Research 34:597-602.

Mitchell, J. (2010) Experimental research to quantify the environmental impact of feral pigs within tropical freshwater ecosystems. Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation.

Mitchell, J., and Mayer, R. (1997) Diggings by feral pigs within the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area of north Queensland. Wildlife Research 24:591-601.

Nordberg, E. J., Macdonald, S., Zimny, G., Hoskins, A., Zimny,A., Somaweera,R., Ferguson, J. and Perry, J. (2019). An evaluation of nest predator impacts and the efficacy of plastic meshing on marine turtle nests on the western Cape York Peninsula, Australia. Biological Conservation 238:108201.

O’Bryan, C. J., N. R. Patton, J. Hone, J. S. Lewis, V. Berdejo-Espinola, D. R. Risch, M. H. Holden, and E. McDonald-Madden. 2021. Unrecognized threat to global soil carbon by a widespread invasive 3517 species. Global Change Biology Early View

Risch, D.R., Ringma, J., and Price, M.R. (2021) The global impact of wild pigs (Sus scrofa) on terrestrial biodiversity. Scientific Reports, 11, Article No 13256 (2021).

Roberts, D., Aken, R., Taisman, A. and Chevathon, J. (1999) Feral pigs–indigenous Feral Pigs: Pest Status and Prospects for Control. James Cook University, Cairns.

Statham, M., and Middleton, M. (1987) Feral pigs on Flinders Island. Papers and proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 121:121-124.

Taylor, D., Leung, L.-P. and Gordon, I. (2011) The impact of feral pigs (Sus scrofa) on an Australian lowland tropical rainforest. Wildlife Research 38:437-445.

Tierney, T. A., and Cushman, J. H. (2006) Temporal changes in native and exotic vegetation and soil characteristics following disturbances by feral pigs in a California grassland. Biological Invasions 8:1073-1089.

Tisdell, C. A. (1984) Feral pigs threaten native wildlife in Australia. Tigerpaper 11:13-17.

Whytlaw, P. A., Edwards, W. and Congdon, B. C. (2013) Marine turtle nest depredation by feral pigs (Sus scrofa) on the Western Cape York Peninsula, Australia: implications for management. Wildlife Research 40:377-384.

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)

Hall-Mendelin S, Jansen CC, Cheah WY, Montgomery BL, Hall RA, Ritchie SA, Van den Hurk AF. (2012) Culex annulirostris (Diptera: Culicidae) host feeding patterns and Japanese encephalitis virus ecology in northern Australia. Journal of Medical Entomology. 49(2):371-7. doi: 10.1603/me11148. PMID: 22493857.

Hoad, V. C., Kiely, P., Seed, C. R., Viennet, E., and Gosbell, I. B. (2022) An Outbreak of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Australia; What Is the Risk to Blood Safety? Viruses. 14(9):1935. doi: 10.3390/v14091935. PMID: 36146742; PMCID: PMC9501196

van den Hurk, A. F., Skinner, E., Ritchie, S. A. and Mackenzie, J. S. (2022) The emergence of Japanese encephalitis virus in Australia in 2022: Existing knowledge of mosquito vectors. Viruses. 14(6):1208. doi: 10.3390/v14061208. PMID: 35746679; PMCID: PMC9231386.

African swine fever (ASF)

Pepin, K,M., Brown, V.R. Yang, A. Beasley, J.C., Boughton. R.  Ver Cauteren, K.C., Miller. R.S., and Bevins, S.N. (2022) Optimising response to an introduction of African swine fever in wild pigs. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 69(5): p. e3111-e3127.

Foot and mouth disease (FMD)

Cowled, B., and Garner, G. (2008) A review of geospatial and ecological factors affecting disease spread in wild pigs: considerations for models of foot-and-mouth disease spread. Preventive veterinary medicine87(3-4): 197–212.

Garner, M. and Beckett, S. (2005) Modelling the spread of foot-and-mouth disease in Australia. Australian Veterinary Journal, 83: 758-766.

Ward, M. P., Laffan, S. W., and Highfield, L. D. (2007) The potential role of wild and feral animals as reservoirs of foot-and-mouth disease. Preventive Veterinary Medicine80(1): 9–23.

Ward, M. P., Garner, M. and Cowled, B. (2015) Modelling foot-and-mouth disease transmission in a wild pig–domestic cattle ecosystem. Australian Veterinary Journal. 93: 4-12.


Barton, D. P., Fahey, H., Jenkins, D. J and Shamsi, S. (2023) Zoonotic Parasites in Feral Animals Commonly Consumed in Australia — Is There a Risk? Current Clinical Microbiology Reports.

Eales, K. M., Norton, R. E. and Ketheesan, N. (2010) Brucellosis in northern Australia. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 83:876-878.

Hampton, J., Spencer, P. B., Elliot, A. D. and Thompson, R. A. (2006) Prevalence of zoonotic pathogens from feral pigs in major public drinking water catchments in Western Australia. EcoHealth. 3:103-108

Orr, B., Ma, G., Koh, W.L., Malik, R., Norris, J.M., Westman, M.E., Wigney, D., Brown, G., Ward, M.P. and Šlapeta, J., (2020) Pig-hunting dogs are an at-risk population for canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection in eastern Australia. Parasites & Vectors, 13(1): pp.1-11

Orr, B., Malik, R., Westman, M. E., and Norris, J. M. (2022) Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in pig-hunting dogs from north Queensland, Australia. Australian Veterinary Journal. 100(6): 230– 235.

Orr, B., Westman, M. E., Malik, R., Purdie, A., Craig, S. B., and Norris, J. M. (2022) Leptospirosis is an emerging infectious disease of pig-hunting dogs and humans in North Queensland. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 16(1), e0010100.

Orr, B., Westman, M.E., Norris, J.M., Repousis, S., Ma, G., and Malik, R. (2022) Detection of Brucella spp. during a serosurvey of pig-hunting and pet dogs in eastern Australia. Australian Veterinary Journal. 100(8): 360-366.

Beausoleil, N. J. and Mellor, D. J. (2015) Advantages and limitations of the Five Domains model for assessing welfare impacts associated with vertebrate pest control, New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 63(1):37-43, DOI: 10.1080/00480169.2014.956832

Dubois, S., Fenwick, N., Ryan, E.A., Baker, L., Baker, S.E., Beausoleil, N.J., Carter, S., Cartwright, B., Costa, F., Draper, C., Griffin, J., Grogan, A., Howald, G., Jones, B., Littin, K.E., Lombard, A.T., Mellor, D.J., Ramp, D., Schuppli, C.A. and Fraser, D. (2017) International consensus principles for ethical wildlife control. Conservation Biology, 31: 753-760.

Hampton, J. O., and Hyndman, T. H. (2019). Under addressed animal‐welfare issues in conservation. Conservation Biology33(4): 803-811. doi: 10.1111/cobi.13267.

Hampton J. O., Hyndman T. H., Laurence, M., Perry, A. L., Adams P. J. and Collins, T. (2016) Animal welfare and the use of procedural documents: limitations and refinement. Wildlife Research 43, 599-603.

Hampton J. O., Jones B., Perry A. L., Miller, C. J. and Hart, Q. (2016) Integrating animal welfare into wild herbivore management: lessons from the Australian Feral Camel Management Project. The Rangeland Journal. 38, 163-171.

Hart, Q., Jones, B., Hampton, J., and Gee, P. (2013). Case study: Ensuring acceptable animal welfare standards under the Australian Feral Camel Management Project. Department of Land Resource Management, Northern Territory Government, Australia and Australian Feral Camel Management Project.  (This is a useful example in feral camel management which outlines key aspects in relation to demonstrating a commitment to animal welfare and what strategies are implemented to achieve this)

Orr, B., Malik, R., Norris, J. and Westman, M. (2019) The welfare of pig-hunting dogs in Australia. Animals. 9; 853.


La Sala, L.F., Burgos, J.M., Caruso, N.C., Bagnato, C.E., Ballari, S.A., Guadagnin, D.L., Kindel, A., Etges, M., Merino, M.L., Marcos, A. & Skewes, O. (2023). Wild pigs and their widespread threat to biodiversity conservation in South America. Journal for Nature Conservation, 73, p.126393. *New


Green, P. (2023) Trapping feral pigs in corral traps and drop nets as possible population management tools – practical lessons and assessment of animal welfare in a pilot study. NatureScot Research Report 1226. *New

Treichler, J.W., VerCauteren, K.C., Taylor, C.R. & Beasley, J.C. (2023). Changes in wild pig (Sus scrofa) relative abundance, crop damage, and environmental impacts in response to control efforts. Pest Management Science. *New


Leivers, S.J., Carlisle, K.M., Connally, R.L., Frank, M.G. and Tomeček, J.M., (2023). The influence of income and loss on hunters’ attitudes towards wild pigs and their management. Wildlife Society Bulletin, p.e1439. *New

Luat-Hūʻeu, K. K., Vaughan, M. B., & Price, M. R. (2023). Understanding local pig hunter values and practices as a means toward co-management of feral pigs (Sus scrofa; pua’a) in the Hawaiian Islands. Ecology and Society, 28(2). *New

Varuzza, P., Lombardini, M., Toscano, V., Argenio, F., D’Alessio, N., Caputo, V., Veneziano, V., & Fioretti, A. (2023) Associating metrics of hunting effort with hunting rate: a case study with the wild boar Sus scrofa. Sustainability. 15(8):6819 *New