The National Feral Pig Action Plan
A library of useful references has been put together regarding feral pigs in Australia. This library will be updated with any relevant papers.
Please note: This is not an exhaustive list of feral pig publications; they have been separated into different categories, but some papers may fall into multiple categories (but have only been placed in one). All effort has been made to link the references to the online source.
Categories with newly added publications will be highlighted by “*New” as well as the publication itself.
Hone, J. (2002) Feral pigs in Namadgi National Park, Australia: dynamics, impacts and management. Biological Conservation 105:231-242.
Hvala, A., Rogers, R. M., Alazab, M., & Campbell, H. A. (2023) Supplementing aerial drone surveys with biotelemetry data validates wildlife detection probabilities. Frontiers in Conservation Science, 4 *New
McIlroy, J. C. 1993. Feral pig management problems in the wet tropics of Queensland World Heritage Area. Final Consultancy report on control of feral pigs (Sus scrofa) associated with the wet tropics of Queensland World Heritage Area. WTMA, Cairns.
Pavlov, P. 1992. Investigation of feral pig populations and control measures: Cape Tribulation section of the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. Department of Environment and Heritage Queensland National and Wildlife
Robinson, C. J., Smyth, D. and Whitehead, P. J. (2005) Bush tucker, bush pets, and bush threats: cooperative management of feral animals in Australia’s Kakadu National Park. Conservation Biology 19:1385-1391.
Wilson, C., Gentle, M., & Marshall, D. (2023). Feral pig (Sus scrofa) activity and landscape feature revisitation across four sites in eastern Australia. Australian Mammalogy,45(3); 305-316. *New
Froese, J. G., Smith, C. S., Durr, P. A., McAlpine, C.A. and van Klinken, R. D. (2017) Modelling seasonal habitat suitability for wide-ranging species: Invasive wild pigs in northern Australia. PLOS ONE 12(5): e0177018. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177018
Giles, J. (1980). The ecology of feral pigs in western New South Wales. Doctoral dissertation. University of Sydney.
Keil, G. P. (2023) Unmaking the feral: the shifting relationship between domestic-wild pigs and settler Australians. Environmental Humanities 15(2):19–38 *New
Meek, P. D., Ballard, G. and Fleming, P. (2012) An introduction to camera trapping for wildlife surveys in Australia. PestSmart Toolkit publication, Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre, Canberra, Australia.
Gillespie, G. R., Brennan, K., Gentles, T., Hill, B., Low Choy, J., Mahney, T., Stevens, A., and Stokeld, D. (2015) A guide for the use of remote cameras for wildlife survey in northern Australia. Darwin: Charles Darwin University
Adams, P. J., Fontaine, J. B., Huston, R. M. and Fleming, P. A. (2019) Quantifying efficacy of feral pig (Sus scrofa) population management. Wildlife Research 46: 587-598. https://doi.org/10.1071/WR18100
Alexiou, P. (1983) Effect of feral pigs (Sus scrofa) on subalpine vegetation at Smokers Gap, ACT. Proceedings of the Ecological Society of Australia 12:135-142.
Castle, G., Kennedy, M. S., & Allen, B. L. (2023). Stuck in the mud: Persistent failure of ‘the science’ to provide reliable information on the ecological roles of Australian dingoes. Biological Conservation, 285, 110234. *New
Fordham, D., Georges, A., Corey, B. and Brook. B. W. (2006) Feral pig predation threatens the indigenous harvest and local persistence of snake-necked turtles in northern Australia. Biological Conservation 133:379-388. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2006.07.001
Gillman, G., Sinclair, D., Knowlton, R. and Keys, M. (1985) The effect of some soil chemical properties of the selective logging of a north Queensland rainforest. Forest Ecology and Management 12:195-214.
Hancock, G.R. & Lowry, J.B.C. (2023) Do feral pigs increase soil erosion? A monsoonal northern Australia case study. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 1–14 *New
Koichi, K., Sangha, K. K., Cottrell, A. and Gordon, I. J. (2012) Aboriginal rangers’ perspectives on feral pigs: are they a pest or a resource? A case study in the wet tropics World Heritage Area of northern Queensland. Journal of Australian Indigenous Issues 15:2-19.
Li, A. Y., Williams, N., Fenwick, S. G., Hardy, G. E. S. J. and Adams, P. J. (2014) Potential for dissemination of Phytophthora cinnamomi by feral pigs via ingestion of infected plant material. Biological Invasions 16:765-774. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-013-0535-7
Marshall, J. C., Blessing, J. J., Clifford, S. E., Negus, P. M. and Steward, A. L. (2019) Epigeic invertebrates of pig-damaged, exposed wetland sediments are rooted: An ecological response to feral pigs (Sus scrofa). Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 30:2207-2220. https://doi.org/10.1002/aqc.3468.
Mitchell, J. (1993) Systematic assessment of feral pig damage and recommended pig control methods in the wet tropics World Heritage Area. CSIRO Department of Lands Tropical Weeds Research Centre, Final report to the Wet Tropics Management Authority. WTMA, Cairns.
Nordberg, E. J., Macdonald, S., Zimny, G., Hoskins, A., Zimny,A., Somaweera,R., Ferguson, J. and Perry, J. (2019). An evaluation of nest predator impacts and the efficacy of plastic meshing on marine turtle nests on the western Cape York Peninsula, Australia. Biological Conservation 238:108201.
O’Bryan, C. J., N. R. Patton, J. Hone, J. S. Lewis, V. Berdejo-Espinola, D. R. Risch, M. H. Holden, and E. McDonald-Madden. 2021. Unrecognized threat to global soil carbon by a widespread invasive 3517 species. Global Change Biology Early View.
Tierney, T. A., and Cushman, J. H. (2006) Temporal changes in native and exotic vegetation and soil characteristics following disturbances by feral pigs in a California grassland. Biological Invasions 8:1073-1089.
Tisdell, C. A. (1984) Feral pigs threaten native wildlife in Australia. Tigerpaper 11:13-17.
Whytlaw, P. A., Edwards, W. and Congdon, B. C. (2013) Marine turtle nest depredation by feral pigs (Sus scrofa) on the Western Cape York Peninsula, Australia: implications for management. Wildlife Research 40:377-384.
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)
Hall-Mendelin S, Jansen CC, Cheah WY, Montgomery BL, Hall RA, Ritchie SA, Van den Hurk AF. (2012) Culex annulirostris (Diptera: Culicidae) host feeding patterns and Japanese encephalitis virus ecology in northern Australia. Journal of Medical Entomology. 49(2):371-7. doi: 10.1603/me11148. PMID: 22493857.
Hoad, V. C., Kiely, P., Seed, C. R., Viennet, E., and Gosbell, I. B. (2022) An Outbreak of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Australia; What Is the Risk to Blood Safety? Viruses. 14(9):1935. doi: 10.3390/v14091935. PMID: 36146742; PMCID: PMC9501196
van den Hurk, A. F., Skinner, E., Ritchie, S. A. and Mackenzie, J. S. (2022) The emergence of Japanese encephalitis virus in Australia in 2022: Existing knowledge of mosquito vectors. Viruses. 14(6):1208. doi: 10.3390/v14061208. PMID: 35746679; PMCID: PMC9231386.
African swine fever (ASF)
Pepin, K,M., Brown, V.R. Yang, A. Beasley, J.C., Boughton. R. Ver Cauteren, K.C., Miller. R.S., and Bevins, S.N. (2022) Optimising response to an introduction of African swine fever in wild pigs. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 69(5): p. e3111-e3127.
Foot and mouth disease (FMD)
Cowled, B., and Garner, G. (2008) A review of geospatial and ecological factors affecting disease spread in wild pigs: considerations for models of foot-and-mouth disease spread. Preventive veterinary medicine, 87(3-4): 197–212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2008.03.012
Ward, M. P., Laffan, S. W., and Highfield, L. D. (2007) The potential role of wild and feral animals as reservoirs of foot-and-mouth disease. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 80(1): 9–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2007.01.009
Ward, M. P., Garner, M. and Cowled, B. (2015) Modelling foot-and-mouth disease transmission in a wild pig–domestic cattle ecosystem. Australian Veterinary Journal. 93: 4-12. https://doi.org/10.1111/avj.12278
Barton, D. P., Fahey, H., Jenkins, D. J and Shamsi, S. (2023) Zoonotic Parasites in Feral Animals Commonly Consumed in Australia — Is There a Risk? Current Clinical Microbiology Reports. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40588-023-00193-7
Hampton, J., Spencer, P. B., Elliot, A. D. and Thompson, R. A. (2006) Prevalence of zoonotic pathogens from feral pigs in major public drinking water catchments in Western Australia. EcoHealth. 3:103-108
Orr, B., Ma, G., Koh, W.L., Malik, R., Norris, J.M., Westman, M.E., Wigney, D., Brown, G., Ward, M.P. and Šlapeta, J., (2020) Pig-hunting dogs are an at-risk population for canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection in eastern Australia. Parasites & Vectors, 13(1): pp.1-11
Orr, B., Malik, R., Westman, M. E., and Norris, J. M. (2022) Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in pig-hunting dogs from north Queensland, Australia. Australian Veterinary Journal. 100(6): 230– 235. https://doi.org/10.1111/avj.13151
Orr, B., Westman, M. E., Malik, R., Purdie, A., Craig, S. B., and Norris, J. M. (2022) Leptospirosis is an emerging infectious disease of pig-hunting dogs and humans in North Queensland. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 16(1), e0010100.
Orr, B., Westman, M.E., Norris, J.M., Repousis, S., Ma, G., and Malik, R. (2022) Detection of Brucella spp. during a serosurvey of pig-hunting and pet dogs in eastern Australia. Australian Veterinary Journal. 100(8): 360-366. https://doi.org/10.1111/avj.13172
Beausoleil, N. J. and Mellor, D. J. (2015) Advantages and limitations of the Five Domains model for assessing welfare impacts associated with vertebrate pest control, New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 63(1):37-43, DOI: 10.1080/00480169.2014.956832
Dubois, S., Fenwick, N., Ryan, E.A., Baker, L., Baker, S.E., Beausoleil, N.J., Carter, S., Cartwright, B., Costa, F., Draper, C., Griffin, J., Grogan, A., Howald, G., Jones, B., Littin, K.E., Lombard, A.T., Mellor, D.J., Ramp, D., Schuppli, C.A. and Fraser, D. (2017) International consensus principles for ethical wildlife control. Conservation Biology, 31: 753-760. https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12896
Hampton J. O., Hyndman T. H., Laurence, M., Perry, A. L., Adams P. J. and Collins, T. (2016) Animal welfare and the use of procedural documents: limitations and refinement. Wildlife Research 43, 599-603. https://doi.org/10.1071/WR16153
Hampton J. O., Jones B., Perry A. L., Miller, C. J. and Hart, Q. (2016) Integrating animal welfare into wild herbivore management: lessons from the Australian Feral Camel Management Project. The Rangeland Journal. 38, 163-171. https://doi.org/10.1071/RJ15079
Hart, Q., Jones, B., Hampton, J., and Gee, P. (2013). Case study: Ensuring acceptable animal welfare standards under the Australian Feral Camel Management Project. Department of Land Resource Management, Northern Territory Government, Australia and Australian Feral Camel Management Project. (This is a useful example in feral camel management which outlines key aspects in relation to demonstrating a commitment to animal welfare and what strategies are implemented to achieve this)
Threat abatement plan for predation, habitat degradation, competition and disease transmission by feral pigs (Sus scrofa) (2017) Commonwealth of Australia, Department of Environment and Energy, (including background document)
La Sala, L.F., Burgos, J.M., Caruso, N.C., Bagnato, C.E., Ballari, S.A., Guadagnin, D.L., Kindel, A., Etges, M., Merino, M.L., Marcos, A. & Skewes, O. (2023). Wild pigs and their widespread threat to biodiversity conservation in South America. Journal for Nature Conservation, 73, p.126393. *New
Green, P. (2023) Trapping feral pigs in corral traps and drop nets as possible population management tools – practical lessons and assessment of animal welfare in a pilot study. NatureScot Research Report 1226. *New
Treichler, J.W., VerCauteren, K.C., Taylor, C.R. & Beasley, J.C. (2023). Changes in wild pig (Sus scrofa) relative abundance, crop damage, and environmental impacts in response to control efforts. Pest Management Science. *New
Leivers, S.J., Carlisle, K.M., Connally, R.L., Frank, M.G. and Tomeček, J.M., (2023). The influence of income and loss on hunters’ attitudes towards wild pigs and their management. Wildlife Society Bulletin, p.e1439. *New
Luat-Hūʻeu, K. K., Vaughan, M. B., & Price, M. R. (2023). Understanding local pig hunter values and practices as a means toward co-management of feral pigs (Sus scrofa; pua’a) in the Hawaiian Islands. Ecology and Society, 28(2). *New
Varuzza, P., Lombardini, M., Toscano, V., Argenio, F., D’Alessio, N., Caputo, V., Veneziano, V., & Fioretti, A. (2023) Associating metrics of hunting effort with hunting rate: a case study with the wild boar Sus scrofa. Sustainability. 15(8):6819 *New